Laws

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  • ROBERT KATZ

    September 16, 1935

    I saw this headline in yesterday’s Albany Evening News, claiming that the Nuremberg Laws announced just two days ago have taken European Jews back to the Middle Ages – surely this is an exaggeration? Or are things really this bad?

      FRITZ GLUCKSTEIN (8 years old. Berlin, Germany)

      Anti-Semitism; the Nuremberg Laws more or less legalized it. 

      LEO LIFFMAN

      We listened to these laws, which were explained over the radio. And this we realized, was a death knell, economically speaking… for the Jewish people, for us.

      KARL-GEORG ROESSLER (12 years old. Germany):

      We are not allowed to go to restaurants, we are not allowed to go to the theatres, we are not allowed to mingle with the public… 

      HERMAN COHN (14 years old. Germany)

      ... more and more laws are introduced... you can’t buy in certain stores any more, you can’t go to a swimming pool... you can’t go into parks anymore

      MARGARET LAMBERT (BERGMANN)

      People are not allowed to buy in Jewish stores, for instance, if somebody got caught doing that, they would take their pictures and hang them up at the City Hall. 

      EDGAR STRAUSS

      Jews can’t have a gentile maid in house, Jews lost the right to vote; Jews can’t inter marry.

      STEVE FENVES

      But our governess who was German national didn't even wait for that order. She announced that she wasn't going to spend one more night in a Jewish house.  She just packed up and left.

  • MARGARET LAMBERT (BERGMANN)

    One day you were a respected citizen and the next day you are a 10th rate citizen. You were excluded from everything, all German life. You were banned from all public places – no theatres, no restaurants, no swimming pools – you couldn’t go any place and you could not associate with non-Jewish people. 

      HANNELE (Germany)

      Inge and I had arranged that we would both bring our new ice-skates with us and go to the outdoor ice-rink after morning school. But when we got to the entrance of the rink we were confronted by a large notice (that read), ‘DOGS AND JEWS ARE NOT PERMITTED’.

      ERNA GOLDMAN (Frankfurt, Germany)

      My grandfather… used to go swimming in the Main River. There was a designated public swimming area, and one day a sign was put up: “Entry is forbidden for Jews.” So my mother said to my grandfather: “Dad, you can’t go there anymore. Didn’t you see what the sign said? Entry is forbidden for Jews.” “Well, but they don’t mean me,” my grandfather said. He couldn’t believe that this would apply to him as well. 

  • Ruth Cardin

    November 20, 1935

    I also heard that relationships between Jews and non-Jews have been outlawed? How can our friendships and relationships now be policed?

      KARL-GEORG ROESSLER

      My sister and I had to sign at the Gestapo, a paper which says we will not have any contact with, for myself with female, for my sister, with male non-Jews otherwise we would immediately be deported to a concentration camp and harsh punishment would meted out to the non-Jew with whom we had contact.

      EDWARD ADLER (25 years old. Hamburg, Germany)

      I was going with a nice young lady that I had gone with for some time, and we were out camping… I had a kayak, and we went out camping near Hamburg, and there was a fellow and, next to us, near us, in another little camp with a tent, we slept in tents. He wanted to make a date with this young lady that I was going with, and she didn't want any part of it. He reported me to, to the Gestapo, and I was arrested for going with a gentile girl. I got six months in prison, solitary confinement in 1935.

    • ROBERT KATZ

      November 25, 1935

      And I believe that Paragraph 175 has been revised and expanded to include homosexual thoughts and intentions! 

      ALBRECHT BECKER

      We lived openly without mincing words we lived as if being gay was a state religion… Then suddenly homosexuals were hunted down and jailed.

      ROBERT KATZ

      But how can you police someone’s thoughts?

      FRITZ GLUCKSTEIN

      What regulation, what rule comes next? 

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